Relation of science and the stem cell

Summary

It is defined as a cell having both ability (self-replication competence) that can maintain many differentiation ability even if the stem cell passes through ability (many differentiation ability) and the cell division that the cell of plural systems can differentiate. Because it became the trunk of the cell lineage in the outbreak, it was named. One differentiates to different type of cell, but, among two autospore which arose from a stem cell, the other maintains the same differentiation ability again. At this point I am different from other cells and carry a role to supply a cell in a process of the outbreak and an organization, organic maintenance.

Mechanism to control genetic expression to induce differentiation acts with the stem cell, and this is performed by structure conversion of a signal and the chromatin from the outside. Because the common somatic cell lacks in telomerase, telomere shortens at every cell division, but telomeric length is maintained because telomerase develops with the stem cell. This is a function necessary for a stem cell repeating division. A new cell is not supplied when I cannot maintain the property of the stem cell and causes premature senility or the sterility.

Example of the stem cell

As for the embryonic-stem cells (embryonic stem cell) made from a fertilized egg, all types of cells can differentiate (totipotency). In addition, each in vivo organization has various kinds of stem cells called the mature form stem cell (an organization stem cell, somatic stem cell), and kinds of the cells which can differentiate are usually limited. For example, as for the thing of a blood corpuscle, the hematopoietic stem cells of marrow become, and the nerve trunk cell differentiates to nerve cells. In addition, there are various kinds such as a liver stem cell to prepare the liver into, the skin stem cell that it becomes the skin organization, a reproduction stem cell creating generative cells again, and a study is performed in reproduction medicine for the application to the field of medical care flourishingly. As application to reproduction medicine, there are performed hematopoietic stem cells transplant or the fat stem cell transplant that in late years attract attention for the practical use conventionally.

Pluripotency

I point to the ability that can differentiate to all cells class forming a one of the placentas body except the embryo outside the body organization. It is not the individual formation in a narrow sense and may point to the ability that can differentiate to all the serieses of cell belonging to three blastoderms (an endoblast, a mesoderm, ectoderm). It is ability for differentiation that an internal cell mass of the blastocyst period or an embryonic stem cell established from there have.

* Embryonic-stem cells (embryonic stem cell)

* Germline neoplastic cell (EC cell)

* Germline reproduction stem cell (EG cell)

* Embryonic stem cell (ntES cell) derived from a nuclear transplant embryonic stem cell, a somatic cell

* An induced pluripotent stem cell, instruction embryo stem cell (induced pluripotent stem cells)


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